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联邦巡回法院因过时而驳回与环境污染有关的索赔

Frazer / Exton Development,L.P.诉美国 ,美国联邦巡回上诉法院确认驳回了与联邦政府有关环境污染的诉讼请求,因为所涉场地的上诉人,现任和前任土地所有人在环境修复后超过6年提起了诉讼完成了。 Frazer / Exton Development,L.P.诉美国 ,编号:2019-2143(联邦主席,2020年4月7日)。

此案与宾夕法尼亚州切斯特县的Foot Mineral 超级基金 网站有关“Site”). During WWII and for some time after, the federal government used the 现场 for various industrial processes which contaminated on-site soils and groundwater. 在 1998, appellant Frazer/Exton acquired the 现场 with full knowledge of the contamination and assumed responsibility for a consent order that required it to complete a remedial investigation and feasibility study. 环保局 eventually selected a permanent remedy for the 现场, and in 2011, the remediation of the 现场 was completed. Another appellant, Whiteland, acquired the 现场 in 2016. A year later, in 2017, Whiteland executed an environmental covenant which effectuated land restrictions that were previously approved by 环保局 .

弗雷泽(Frazer)/埃克斯顿(Exton)和怀特兰(Whiteland)于2018年在索赔法院提起诉讼,称联邦政府’s operations and disposal methods at the 现场 resulted in environmental contamination, which effected a physical taking without just compensation in violation of the 第五修正案 in the United States Constitution. The Claims Court dismissed the case for lack of jurisdiction, holding that Frazer/Exton and Whiteland’于2011年提起诉讼,诉讼时效的六年时效已到期。上诉后,联邦巡回法院确认。

联邦巡回法院解释说,如果收取是由渐进的物理过程(例如环境污染)引起的,则直到情况发生时,收取索赔才产生“stabilized,” meaning “当环境损害使财产遭受如此重大侵害时,这种行为的永久性就很明显,并且损害的程度是可以预见的。”换句话说,在运行的限制期内,损失既不需要完整也不可以完全计算。联邦巡回法院确认了下级法院’的决定“stabilized” no later than 2011 when remediation activities at the 现场 were complete.

上诉人争辩说,在EPA于2017年对土地使用施加限制时提出了这一要求,因为在上诉人中’认为,关于上诉人的方式没有可预测性或持久性’产权将受到影响,直到实施限制。但是法院驳回了这一论点,因为土地使用限制是监管性的,而不是实物获取的,因此与上诉人所承诺的实物获取主张无关。该决定提醒我们,必须保守地计算成本回收诉讼的任何时效期限。